character is looking at. At other times the term is used to refer to the directionality of character’s lines of vision within shots.
Flashback A jump in narrative time from the present into the past. Rather than proceeding chronologically through the story, flashbacks allow filmmakers to jump back and forth between past and present events.
Formalism A film theory that emphasizes the formal properties of cinema that shape the way movies are made. Formalists recognize, for
example, that organizing screen space is an artisitic activity that differs from our daily perception of real life. Major formal theorists include Sergei Einstein and Rudolph Arnheim.
Invisible style A norm of filmmaking in which style is not usually noticed, based on the assumption that narrative is